Quantitative interview, or interview on measurement, opposed to qualitative interview, is performed by the researcher with an attempt to obtain numerical statistics. Qualitative is characterized by exploratory, diagnostic, prediction, which leads to a perceptual understanding without asking for accuracy. Its a method of market survey used in several countries such as market survey China, market survey Brazil, market survey France… Unlike this, in a quantitative interview, information is majorly expressed by a certain number , mathematical units, etc. This traditional method of inquiry express phenomena and problems in quantitative form. And then the researcher tries to discover laws that the numbers manifest. However, in course of dealing with data and analyzing them, the researcher must be clear about by which measurement data are achieved. S. Stevens classifies the measurements under four kinds , as seen below: nominal measure, sequential measure, spacing measure and proportional measure.
The number in nominal measure is used to represent a category, for example, 1 is for feminine, 2 male. Figures in sequential measure correspond to the order of the object of study. For example, 4,3,2,1 indicate successively excellent, good, pass, fail. Numbers in Spacing measure indicate not only the quantity of the object of study, but also the interval among them. For instance, O°C is equal to 273°K or 32°F. Proportional measure is absolute. It uses 0 which indicates nothing. It often applies to length, weight and time. The measurements should be carefully selected, because each has its own application extent. Usually, when we need a large sample size, it’s difficult to involve too many participants in a qualitative interview, then we should carry out a quantitative interview with the help of questionnaire to fill. For example, in 2009, a research to study Chinese cities’ touristic development potentiality wad launched among 14 coastal cities in China. In the research, we used synthetic economic level(S1), touristic development level(S2), fundamental constructions(S3), ecological environment(S4), scientific and educational environment(S5). Theses studying objects were remarked successively by S1, S2, S3, S4, S5. This measure is what we call nominal measure. Certainly, it’s probable that we use several measurements in a research.
The studying of quantitative research would be more clear and easier if it is related to qualitative research. First of all, the philosophy of reality based on which they are done is not the same. The object of study of quantitative research is objective, independent of the researcher. However that of qualitative research have a close relationship with the researcher, which manifests surely a sort of subjectivity. The researcher of quantitative interview thinks that their object can be divided into several parts so as to study each of them to finally get a complete profile. But in qualitative research, the researcher argues that the object is an organic ensemble that can’t be divided. Secondly, the two researching methods have differences in the interpretation of human, quantitative researcher holds that all people are similar. Qualitative researcher considers that people are divergent and they can’t be simply divided into groups. Lastly, quantitative research attempts to discover a general law of human’s behaviors and give general explanations. On the opposite, qualitative research is to study a particular case and give concerned explanations. In other words, the former is devoted to the extent, and the latter the depth.